Proto-Laqar

Phonology

Consonants

labialalveolaralveolopalatalpalatalvelarlabiovelaruvularglottal
nasalsmn
voiced plosivesbd dzg
voiceless aspirated plosivestʰ tsʰ tɬʰtɕʰkʷʰ
ejective plosivestsʼ tɬʼtɕʼkʷʼʔ
voiced fricativeszʑɣʷʁ
voiceless fricativess ɬɕχh
liquidsɾ l
semivowelsjw

Vowels

frontback
closei iːu uː
openæ æːɒ ɒː

Syllable Structure

Syllable structure in Proto-Laqar was CV(C). Geminates are permitted between vowels.

Stress

Stress in Proto-Laqar falls on the left-most of the last three syllables of a word that has the heaviest syllable weight.

Phonological Processes

ʔ cannot exist adjacent to another consonant, including across word boundaries. After a consonant it is deleted, and before a consonant, if it is a plosive it turns it into an ejective, and in any case it is elided.

Voiceless aspirated consonants become voiceless unaspirated consonants before other voiceless aspirated consonants, including across word boundaries.

When velar consonants precede uvular plosives, the velar consonants become uvular; likewise, when uvular consonants precede velar plosives, the uvular consonants become velar. Uvular/velar fricatives become uvular when adjacent to a uvular plosive and velar when adjacent to a velar plosive. These processes also occur across word boundaries.s

Voiced plosives merge with following h to form a corresponding voiceless aspirated plosive, including across word boundaries.

Morphosyntax

Word Order

Word order in Proto-Laqar was SDOXV, where X is TMP.

Gender

Gender in Proto-Laqar is masculine versus feminine.

Alignment

Alignment in Proto-Laqar is Fluid-S.

Verb Complex

The finite verb complex has the following components:

The participle verb complex has the following components:

The gerund verb complex has the following components:

The agent/patient nominalization verb complex has the following components:

Tense/Aspect/Mood

There are two basic aspects, imperfective and perfective; verb stems are normally either perfective or imperfective, with imperfective and perfective forms respectively being derived from them.

ipfv. from pfv.
pfv. from ipfv.

There are two basic tenses, past and non-past; perfective aspect with non-past tense implies the future.

non-past (for perfective verbs)ji
past (for imperfective verbs)tʰɒw

There are four basic moods, indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and jussive.

Indicative mood is unmarked.

Imperative mood is indicated through omitting the normal subject person marker, and instead using the following subject person marker:

sg.du.pl.
2nd m./f.-χugχu

Subjunctive and jussive moods are indicated with the following marker:

sjv.ɕi
jus.ɾɒːw

Derivational Markers

Aspect conversion markers count as derivational markers. When combined with causative markers, more than one aspect conversion marker can be present on a single verb.

The causative marker always results in a perfective verb, even when the action being caused is imperfective; to obtain an imperfective causative the imperfective marker needs to be attached. The reflexive marker does not change the perfectivity of the verb to which it is attached.

caus.sæj
refl.kʷʼiː
recip.ʔiɾ

Verb Subject Agreement

sg.du.pl.
1stʔæwlɒglɒː
2nd m.nibigbi
2nd f.kʰæpʰɒg (in transitive paradigms mɒː)
3rd m.ʔæʔugʔuː
3rd f.ʔinɾɒgɾɒː

Active and Passive Participle Markers

act.jud
pass.wæːtʰ

Nominalizations

ger.tsʰæ
res.hi
qual.lu
agt.mi
pat.ɬæːn
inst.qʰi
loc.ʔæːhi

Personal Markers

These are used very frequently with verbs, to mark the person and number of the object, and with nouns, to mark the person and number of the possessor.

sg.du.pl.
1stlæːnikʰniː
2nd m.ʔiːbukʰbu
2nd f.ʔæːpʰækʰɾæ
3rd m.ʔukʰʔu
3rd f.ɾiːχɒkʰχɒː
refl.mimimi

Full Personal Pronouns

sg.du.pl.
1stgʷɒːmniːtʰkʰænniːtʰ
2nd m.læzkʰænlæz
2nd f.dunpʰæːkʰænpʰæː
refl.miːmiːmiː

Demonstratives

Proximal

Independent
sg.du.pl.
m.dæjdæːɾkʰændæːɾ
f.duzduːmkʰænduːm
Dependent
sg.du.pl.
m.dæjdæːɾdæːɾ
f.duzduːmduːm

Distal

Independent
sg.du.pl.
m.tsʼitsʼiːɾkʰæntsʼiːɾ
f.tsʼiztsʼiːmkʰæntsʼiːm
Dependent
sg.du.pl.
m.tsʼitsʼiːɾtsʼiːɾ
f.tsʼiztsʼiːmtsʼiːm

Noun Phrases

Noun phrases have the following format:

Of these, the noun stem, number/gender marker, personal marker, and definite article form the actual noun with regard to stress. The demonstrative and postpositions are clitics and do not contribute to any other words' stress placement.

Postpositions

agentive
patientivenu
dativetɕʰæː
genitiveɾi
instrumental/comitativelu
locativekʼɒ

Nominal Number/Gender Marking

Non-Collective Nouns

sg.du.pl.
m.-mukʰitʰ
f.-lækʰ

Collective Nouns

sgv.col.
m.wi-
f.ʔiː-

Definite Article

sg.du.pl.
m.dæɾdæɾ
f.didimdim

Adjectival Agreement

sg.du.pl.
m.ʔæʔækʰʔæm
f.ʔiʔikʰʔim

Relativizer

rel.

Complementizer

comp.pʰæ

Conjunctions

andʔætsʰ
orni

Negative Markers

negative adverbɕuː

The negative pronoun/determiner has the following form:

Independent

sg.du.pl.
m.ɕɒɕɒɾkʰænɕɒɾ
f.ɕuɕæmkʰænɕæm

Dependent

sg.du.pl.
m.ɕɒɕɒɾɕɒɾ
f.ɕuɕæmɕæm

Other Pronouns/Determiners

The interrogative pronoun/determiner has the following form:

Independent

sg.du.pl.
m.ʁiʁiɾkʰænʁiɾ
f.ʁuʁumkʰænʁum

Dependent

sg.du.pl.
m.ʁiʁiɾʁiɾ
f.ʁuʁumʁum

Adverbial

interrogative adverbʁi

The indefinite pronoun/determiner has the following form:

Independent

sg.du.pl.
m.kʰæːkʰæːɾkʰænkʰæːɾ
f.kʰæːkʰæːmkʰænkʰæːm

Dependent

sg.du.pl.
m.kʰæːkʰæːɾkʰæːɾ
f.kʰæːkʰæːmkʰæːm

Place Demonstratives

proximalhæːn
distalhæːtʰ

These are feminine.

Adjectival Usage

Nominalizing an adjective is done through attaching the following suffix:

nom.him

Creating an adjective referring to the quality of being a noun from a noun is done through attaching the following suffix:

adj.ʔutʰ

Locative adjectives are formed from nouns by attaching the following to the noun stem:

loc.kʰæ

Comparative and superlative degree are expressed with the following marked being attached to the adjective stem (before the number/gender marker):

comp.sæː
super.tʰi

Things being compared with are expressed via the instrumental/comitative postposition.

Adjectives can be used directly as adverbs without any extra marking.

Possession

Possessed nouns receive a personal marker for the person, gender, and number of the possessor. Alienable third-person possessors may be placed before the adjectives and compounded nouns modifying a noun with a genitive postposition. Inalienable third-person possessors may be placed before the adjectives and compounded nouns modifying a noun without a genitive postposition. Frequently inalienably possessed nouns are not referred to with possessors but rather with the definite article.

Yes/No Questions

Yes/no questions are marked with the final particle:

int.

Proto-Laqar Roots

Go back to the conlanging page.

Go back to the main page.